Donald Trump: Laboratory Testing Results


Medical data
 
As a handy reference, various laboratory test results, spanning years, have been charted SEE BELOW and consolidated links to his physician notes are available.


height, weight, and obesity
 
Several height and weight measurements for Trump are available SEE BELOW.

Primary documentation from government sources -- his draft card in 1964 and his drivers license in 2012 -- gives Trump's height as 6 feet 2 inches MORE. And, during debates in the 2016 presidential campaign, it was apparent that another debater, former Gov. Jeb Bush (6 feet 3 inches), is taller than Trump 1.

Thus, there is no doubt that Trump is 6 feet 2 inches tall (at most).

Since announcing his presidential candidacy, however, Trump and his doctors have claimed he is 6 feet 3 inches tall SEE BELOW. Why the discrepancy? Speculations in 2016, when Trump weighed 236 pounds, noted that he would be classified as "obese" if he were 6'2'', but would be classified as merely "overweight" if he were 6'3'' 2. Gaining to 243 pounds in early 2019 SEE BELOW, Trump now rates as obese even if he were 6 feet 3 inches tall.

He has stated (2016) that "the one thing I would like to do is be able to drop 15, 20 pounds. It would be good." 3

Speculations that Trump's disclosed weight far below his actual weight were known as the "girther" conspiracy, in mocking reference to the fatuous "birther" accusations that President Obama was born outside the United States 4.

Comment: It says something when even the height and weight of the President -- which are the simplest and most straightforward parameters conceivable -- are uncertain and thought to be manipulated. Physician participation in spreading misinformation hurts the profession (at the least).



circus-like physicals
 
For physical exams while he was a private citizen, Trump said, "Well, I try and do it every year" 3. His long-time personal physician has written: "He has had an annual physical exam in the spring of every year" 5.

As a candidate, Trump issued three statements about his medical health:

  • 2015: (December)   MORE 6 (Physician statement #1)
  • 2016: (September)  MORE 5 (Physician statement #2)
  • 2016: (September)  MORE 3 (Interviews: Dr. Oz, Fox)
Since taking office, Trump has had more-or-less yearly physical examinations at Walter Reed National Military Medical Center:
  • 2017: (January)  Takes office.
  • 2018: (January)  MORE 7 Press briefing: MORE 8
  • 2019: (February) MORE 9
  • 2019: (November) MORE 10
The main medical results from these evaluations are tabulated elsewhere SEE BELOW, and are discussed in various pages.

Comment: Incredibly, these physical examinations, which one would expect to be routine, staid affairs, took on circus-like characteristics:

  • The 2015 report had ridiculous, unprofessional hyperbole that made Trump's physician a national laughingstock. It later emerged that Trump wrote this report himself.
  • The 2018 report was delivered during a press conference in which the President's physician made good-humored and properly caveated remarks that commentators unfairly inflated to ridiculousness.
  • The first 2019 report, though more subdued (and, sadly, far less complete), still contained unsupportable prognostications from the new presidential physician.
  • The second 2019 report, for Trump's "interim checkup" if that's what it really was, is a shambles. Subtexts of the nonsensical statements from the White House and the President's physician strongly suggest it was not a routine examination at all, but a hurried, abrupt consultation at Walter Reed for undisclosed medical reasons.

Hence, three times in two years confidence in the office of the President's physician was undermined -- a low ebb in its history. Even with a perhaps unwarranted acceptance that the President's medical team has been completely and honestly forthcoming, all this sturm und drang is itself dangerous, as it can easily detract from substantive medical issues -- as it already seems to have done with Trump's sleep.



coronary artery disease
 
Trump has calcium deposits in his coronary arteries. They are extensive enough to exceed a common threshold for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease 11. The calcium was detected on CT scans over a number of years, with the amount of calcium increasing each time. (Results tabulated here: SEE BELOW)

The diagnosis is not a surprise. Although Trump does good things for his arteries by avoiding tobacco and maintaining a low blood pressure, anyone living in the modern world is at risk for atherosclerotic arterial disease, of which coronary disease is the deadliest type. Thus, news outlets intone that Trump "has a common form of heart disease" 11 12, but of course it is more complicated than that.

First, a little background:

Coronary artery disease causes symptoms when pathological narrowings in an artery limit blood flow through that artery. Based on the laws of hydraulics, a single lesion in a coronary artery has to obstruct about 60% of the arterial diameter in order to cause symptoms. When obstruction is 100% or nearly so, a heart attack will occur.

Coronary artery disease is a concern because it can lead to heart attack, heart failure, effort intolerance, and arrhythmias including sudden death. It can also can herald disease in other important arteries, such as those in the brain.

What does a coronary calcium score of 133 tell us about blockages in Trump's coronaries? Only probabilities, which can be expressed several ways.
  1. A calcium score between 100 and 300 raises the risk of heart attack or coronary death by a factor of 7.7 as compared to people having no coronary calcium 13. Comment: That sounds grim, but this is only a relative risk. The next item discusses absolute risk, which is more important.
  2. For Trump as an individual, his calcium score, blood pressure, cholesterol level, etc. translate to a predicted 9.5% chance of a "CHD event" in the next 10 years, using the MESA model 14. (See screenshot at bottom of this page→ SEE BELOW) In the MESA model, a "CHD event" (coronary heart disease event) is defined as any of: myocardial infarction (heart attack); resuscitated cardiac arrest; death from coronary heart disease; or, in persons with angina, coronary revascularization ("revascularization" = bypass/angioplasty/stent) 15. A different, unnamed model has been reported to yield a 17% risk 16. Comment: The difference between the models could be explained if they use different endpoints. For example, the MESA model does not consider angina pectoris as a "CHD event," but another model might, and so its predicted "risk" would be a higher number. Other models for persons aged 70+ generally do not factor in coronary calcium levels. The MESA output for Trump SEE BELOW shows that considering his calcium score does not markedly change his risk prediction.
  3. At the level of single obstructions in the coronary arteries, it can be said, on the basis of one study 17, that Trump has a 95% chance of being free from a coronary obstruction of more than 50%. Comment: There is no question, however, that Trump should continue to take a statin, as figure 1 in another study shows 18.
  4. Compared to the typical 17% annual increase in calcium score 19, Trump's increase in annually compounded calcium score was quite high from 2009 to 2013 (went from 34 to 98 = 188% rise in 4 years = 30% increase per year), but has been slow from 2013 to 2018 (went from 98 to 133 = 35% rise in 5 years = 6% increase per year). Comment: This is hard to interpret. The recent slow-down could be good, or it could be bad (because one benefit of statins seems to be conversion of dangerous non-calcified atherosclerosis into less dangerous calcified atherosclerosis). Such uncertainty highlights limitations of the coronary calcium score as it is understood today. New scanning techniques are available, but are not as well studied.

Although putting numbers on serious events can be comforting, it is important to remember that the predictions are not really individual predictions, and that arterial disease has a large, unpredictable component. No physician would be surprised if Trump had a heart attack or stroke tomorrow. Comment: It's this unpredictability, plus Trump's age, that make the effusive prognoses of the White House physicians unsupportable. For example, arterial narrowings much less than 100% often cause heart attacks, not because they limit blood flow, but because they are metabolically active or physically unstable and thereby incite formation of a blood clot at that spot (which then causes 100% obstruction). It is precisely these types of plaques -- non-calcified -- that are missed by coronary calcium scanning. Also, even minimal amounts of coronary disease may enable spasm of the artery, with all the consequences of obstructed blood flow. The most sobering statistic is that sudden death is the first symptom of coronary artery disease in 20% of patients. That said, many people do well in the long term with coronary disease. But all in all, it is better not to have it!



vascular prevention
 
Arterial disease can be prevented by manipulating risk factors. Trump's risk factors have been measured many times, with known results tabulated here: SEE BELOW. Summarized qualitatively:
  • Age            = [worse every year] But not amenable to treatment!
  • Tobacco usage  = [good] Lifelong non-user
  • Diabetes       = [good] Does not have diabetes mellitus
  • Blood pressure = [good] Lifelong healthy pressure (apparently)
  • Family history = [good] No heart attacks or strokes in close blood kin
  • "Cholesterol"  = [bad→good] Blood lipids are under treatment
  • Obesity        = [bad] Unsuccessful treatment
  • Exercise       = [bad] Unsuccessful treatment
Comment: Trump's risk-factor profile would be quite reassuring had physicians disclosed values from past years. Good numbers now generally don't erase the damage from decades of bad numbers.

Trump takes a cholesterol-lowering "statin" medication and reported in September 2016: "And actually I've experimented with three statins. And one seems, for me, to work the best. And it's really brought my cholesterol down into a good range." Asked how long he's been on it: "Couple of years, I would say. Couple of years" 3. Doctors quadrupled the dose of Trump's statin during his second year in office after a marked rise in his cholesterol levels. The dose of his statin (rosuvastatin / Crestor) is now at the maximum normally allowed... assuming the patient has been compliant in taking the pills.

Blood pressure is more important than cholesterol in determining arterial disease. Trump's blood pressure is suprisingly low, assuming the reported numbers are accurate. SEE BELOW Trump echoes this: "I actually have very low blood pressure, which is shocking to people" 22, also noting "I've always been lucky with blood pressure. I've always had very good blood pressure." 3

Prevention becomes more important given the established coronary disease evidenced by coronary calcium.


More...
Parameter Values pre-2013
 
Value in 2013-2014
5
Value in 2015
6
Value in 2016
(Sep.) 5
Value in 2018
(Jan.) 7
Value in 2019
(Feb.) 9
Value in 2019
(Nov.) 10
Age born 1946 ~66-68 ~69 70 71 72 73
"Height"Feet + Inches  (Note 140) 6'2'' in 1964
6'2'' in 2012
MORE
    6'3''Note 140 6'3''Note 140 6'3''Note 140  
WeightPounds 180 in 1964
MORE
  Lost 15
pounds
in prior
12 mos
236 239 243  
"Body Mass Index"
(Fake, based on 6'3'')kg / m / m
        29.9Note 144 30.4  
Body Mass Index
(Actual, based on 6'2'')kg / m / m
        30.7 31.2  
Cardiovascular
Blood pressure     110/65 116/70 122/74 118/80  
Resting heart rate         68/min 70/min  
Pulse oximetry         99% 99%  
Total cholesterol       169 223 196 165
LDL cholesterol       94 143 122 84
HDL cholesterol       63 67 58 70
Triglycerides       61 129    
[Fasting] Blood sugar       99 89    
C reactive protein UQ       0.7      
coronary calciumUnits?   Note 200 34In 2009 8 98In 2013 5 8     133 8Note 244    
EKG       normalApril 14 normalNote 245 "unchanged"  
Chest x-ray       normalApril 14      
Transthoracic
echocardiogram
  "within the
range of
normal"Dec. 16, 2014 5
    UnremarkableNote 247    
Exercise stress
echocardiogram
        "Above average
exercise capacity
based on age and sex."
No abnormalitiesNote 248
   
Calculated 10-year
coronary risk
        9.5%Note 999    
Neurological
Carotid auscultation     Unmentioned Unmentioned "Normal" Conspicuously
unmentioned
Note 350
Unmentioned
Carotid pulse     Unmentioned Unmentioned Unmentioned Unmentioned Unmentioned
Carotid ultrasound     Unmentioned Unmentioned Unmentioned Unmentioned Unmentioned
Neurological exam         Normal    
Montreal Cognitive
Assessment
        30/30    
Endocrine and Metabolic
[Fasting] Blood sugar       99 89    
Hemoglobin A1c         5.0%    
Testosterone       441.6      
"Thyroid function"       "within
normal
range"
TSH=1.76μIU/mil "normal"  
"Liver function"       "within
normal
range"
 ALT=27 U/L
AST=19 U/L
"normal"  
Renal function          BUN=19.0 mg/dL
Creat=0.98 mg/dL
"normal"  
Cancer Screening
Colonoscopy   "normal and
revealed no
polyps"July 10, 2013 5
    Deferred to 2019Note 510    
Prostate specific
antigen (PSA)
    0.15Note 525 0.15Note 525
Note 535
0.12Note 525    
Low-dose chest CT         "No pulmonary
pathology"
   
Other
Bedside Physical Exam     "Only positive results"   UnremarkableNote 640 "No findings
of significance
or changes"
 
HIV test       "up to date" 23      
Hepatitis C         Result?Done "remotely" in time MORE    
Medications     "a statin":
    "low dose"
 
aspirin:
    81mg qd
rosuvastatin
    ("Crestor")
low dose ASA
 
finasteride 23
a tetracycline 23Note 642
rosuvastatin 10mg qd
aspirin 81mg qd
finasteride 1mg qd
ivermectin cream
multi-vitaminNote 644
Only change:
rosuvastatin
   raised to
   40mg qd      Unclear when
      Note 646
 
Immunizations         Prevnar 13
Twinrix
influenza (past)
Pneumovax23
Shingrix
 
General notes:
  • References and dates in the column cells override references and dates in the column header.
  • Unless specified, exact dates in a year are unknown in first three columns. Values in the 2016 column without a specified date are only assumed to have been measured in 2016.
  • The omission of measurement units in the source documents is sloppy medicine.
Other notes:
  • [Note 140] As noted elsewhere MORE, more reliable documentation gives Trump's actual height as 6'2'' and there is more than a little reason to think that the 6'3'' value appearing since announcing his presidential candidacy is a deliberate exaggeration. The presidential physician loses credibility by reporting so patently untrue a number, but one can imagine the pressure on him (not to mention, for the military physicals, the enlisted med-tech who is probably the one who actually measured the President's height).
  • [Note 144] Were Trump's actual height of 6'2'' used, the body mass index would have been 30.7 -- in the "obese" range. This matter is discussed elsewhere: MORE
  • [Note 200] Dr. Zebra assumes that the disclosed coronary calcium values are "Agatston" scores 24.
  • [Note 244] The President's physician did not release this number as part of his report, believing it was not clinically significant 8. It emerged only during questioning by reporters. Gupta 11 notes that a score over 100 is diagnostic of coronary artery disease, which he probably gets from the MESA study's nearly eight-fold increase in risk for coronary events above a level of 100 13. The magnitude of this number's risk can be appreciated by referring to the risk calculations in Note 999, which calculates risk both with and without the calcium score. If the White House is reluctant to admit that President Trump is obese, it is no surprise that it would not be fully forthcoming about his coronary artery disease. Still, partial credit should be given to the President's physician for not ducking the question.
  • [Note 245] EKG in 2018: "Normal sinus rhythm, rate of 71, normal axis, and no other significant findings."
  • [Note 247] Transthoracic echo in 2018: "Normal LV systolic function, EF 60-65%, normal LV chamber size and wall thickness, no wall motion abnormalities. RV normal, atria grossly normal, all valves normal." One wonders why the word "grossly" is inserted to describe the atria. Atrial size is of interest in an older person as an indicator of risk for atrial fibrillation, which is a type of cardiac arrhythmia. Clots are always of interest. One suspects there is something not quite normal about one or more of the President's atria (or something inside them). But bravo for disclosing detail down to the level of the atria.
  • [Note 248] "Normal heart rate, blood pressure, and cardiac output response to exercise. No evidence of ischemia noted and wall motion was normal in all images."
  • [Note 350] Dr. Zebra is rather suspicious about this. The physician's note enumerates several organ systems that were examined, but omits "vascular" and makes no mention of peripheral pulses. Significantly, it uses the word "heart," not "cardiovascular" (the latter including the major arteries). Hence the report does not actually testify to the absence of signs of vascular (arterial) disease.
  • [Note 510] The 2018 report states the 2013 colonoscopy was in June 2013, whereas Dr. Bornstein's note of 2016 says it occurred on July 10, 2013. It is nice to see that even the President of the United States has f*cked up medical records.
  • [Note 525] Trump takes 1mg of the drug finasteride daily to prevent hair loss. This lowers the PSA by about 50% 25. Talking to a TV-doctor in September 2016 Trump said 3: "My PSA has been very good. ... And it's always the first number I ask for. I say give me that number. I want to know, and my number's been -- as you say it's been a very good number."
  • [Note 535] Given the identical PSA values reported in 2015 and 2016, it is not clear whether they are from the same blood draw.
  • [Note 640] Poor Dr. Jackson. Trump's abdominal examination was not normal. In his report, Jackson did not include the standard (and warranted) medical description "Abdomen: obese." Dr. Jackson's medical report is lengthy and detailed, and looks highly professional, but here we see that it falls short. This is not surprising: the presidential physician cannot be wholly professional, nor wholly honest. Dr. Jackson's report is probably as good as we'll ever see.
  • [Note 642] Trump refilled prescriptions for "a long-acting tetracycline, a common antibiotic, to control rosacea" 23. This was later changed to ivermectin.
  • [Note 644] These seem to have been the medications and dosages going into the examination. As a result of the examination, the dose of rosuvastatin was raised to an undisclosed level. However, the ivermectin cream (for rosacea) appears to have started no earlier than February 2017 (see note 642).
  • [Note 646] Dosing of the statin is temporally unclear. The statin dose was 10 mg going into the January 2018 exam. As a result of that exam the dose was raised, though it was not said to what dose. The January 2019 exam says "The only change in medication is an increased dose of rosuvastatin to 40 mg daily" MORE -- does this mean this was the only change in the past year, or that this is the only change being made as a result of that examination? It would have been very aggressive to quadruple the dose in January 2018, so perhaps the dose was doubled at that time, and an interim checkup before January 2019 showed another doubling was needed.
  • [Note 999] Calculated via the MESA model 14 15, as shown below. The MESA study defined a "CHD Event" ("coronary heart disease event") as either a myocardial infarction (heart attack) or death from coronary artery disease 13.
Cited Sources
  1. Mathews, Jay. Trump is obsessed with height. Now he's trying to weaponize it in the election. (Published 12 Feb. 2020. Downloaded on 2020-02-12.) Available on the web: https://www.washingtonpost.com/lifestyle/style/trump-is-obsessed-with-height-now-hes-trying-to-weaponize-it-in-the-election/2020/02/11/030cc552-484f-11ea-ab15-b5df3261b710_story.html
  2. Matthews, Susan. Everyone says Trump is 6-foot-2. so why does Trump's doctor say he's 6-foot-3? A theory. Slate. 15 Sept. 2016.   Available on the web at: http://www.slate.com/blogs/the_slatest/2016/09/15/how_tall_is_donald_trump_really.html
  3. Cillizza, Chris; Blake, Aaron. Donald Trump's interview with Dr. Oz was just as amazingly strange as we thought it would be. (Published 15 September, 2016. Downloaded on 2019-12-01.) Available on the web: https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-fix/wp/2016/09/15/donald-trumps-visit-with-dr-oz-was-just-as-amazing-as-you-though-it-would-be/
        

    Comment: Also includes annotations by Cillizza and Blake. Their interview transcript is archived here: MORE

  4. Kranz, Michal. Trump's reported weight has ignited a 'girther' conspiracy alleging that the president weighs more than 239 pounds. Business Insider. Jan. 17, 2018.   Available on the web at: https://www.businessinsider.com/what-is-the-girther-movement-trump-weight-2018-1
  5. Bornstein, Harold N. [Public Letter]. (Published 13 Sept. 2016. Downloaded on 2019-11-30.) Available on the web: https://assets.donaldjtrump.com/DJT_Medical_Records_.pdf
        

    Comment: Dr. Bornstein became Trump's physician in 1980. Bornstein's letter is linked to by Frizell (op cit) and is archived here -->   MORE

  6. Bump, Philip. Donald Trump's doctor came down with a case of Trumpitis. (Published 26 Aug. 2016 (revision of original Dec. 2015 story). Downloaded on 2019-11-25.) Available on the web: https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-fix/wp/2015/12/14/donald-trumps-doctor-has-come-down-with-a-case-of-trumpitis/
        

    Comment: This articles relates to the first of Dr. Bornstein's letters, reprinted here -->   MORE

  7. Jackson, Ronny L. (M.D.). The President's Periodic Physical Exam. (Published January 16, 2018. Downloaded on 2019-11-21.) Available on the web: https://www.whitehouse.gov/wp-content/uploads/2018/01/Summary-of-Physical-Exam-for-President-Trump-12-Jan-2018.pdf
        

    Comment: The document is archived here -->   MORE. Also highly informative is the press briefing where the report was delivered: MORE.

  8. Sanders, Sarah; Jackson Ronny. Press Briefing by Press Secretary Sarah Sanders and Dr. Ronny Jackson. (Published 16 Jan. 2018. Downloaded on 2019-12-28.) Available on the web: https://www.whitehouse.gov/briefings-statements/press-briefing-by-press-secretary-sarah-sanders-and-dr-ronny-jackson-01162018/
        

    Comment: A transcript of the press briefing is archived here --> MORE

  9. Conley, Sean (D.O.). The President's Second Periodic Physical Exam. (Published February 14, 2019. Downloaded on 2019-11-25.) Available on the web: https://www.whitehouse.gov/briefings-statements/memorandum-physician-president-2/
        

    Comment: The document is archived here -->   MORE

  10. Conley, Sean (D.O.). Interim Check Up. (Published November 18, 2019. Downloaded on 2019-11-21.) Available on the web: XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
        

    Comment: The document is archived here -->   MORE

  11. Gupta, Sanjay. President Trump has common form of heart disease. CNN.com. 1 Feb. 2018.   Available on the web at: https://www.cnn.com/2018/01/17/health/trump-heart-disease-gupta/index.html
  12. Diamond, Jeremy; Liptak, Kevin. Ahead of annual physical, Trump has not followed doctor's orders. CNN.com. 8 Feb. 2019.   Available on the web at: https://www.cnn.com/2019/02/07/politics/trump-health/index.html
  13. Detrano R, Guerci AD, et al. Coronary Calcium as a Predictor of Coronary Events in Four Racial or Ethnic Groups. New England Journal of Medicine. 2008; 358:1336-1345. Pubmed: 18367736. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa072100
  14. McClelland, Robyn L. MESA Risk Calculator. (Published 2015(?). Downloaded on 2019-12-28.) Available on the web: https://www.mesa-nhlbi.org/CAC-Tools.aspx
  15. McClelland RL, et al. 10-Year Coronary Heart Disease Risk Prediction Using Coronary Artery Calcium and Traditional Risk Factors. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2015; 66: 1643-1653. Pubmed: 26449133. DOI: 10.1016/j.jacc.2015.08.035
  16. Olorunnipa, Toluse; Johnson, Carolyn Y. Trump's doctor says he is in good health, despite gaining weight. (Published Feb. 14, 2019. Downloaded on 2019-12-27.) Available on the web: https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/trumps-doctor-says-he-is-in-good-health-despite-gaining-weight/2019/02/14/8fda756a-309f-11e9-8ad3-9a5b113ecd3c_story.html
  17. Haberl R, et al. Correlation of Coronary Calcification and Angiographically Documented Stenoses in Patients With Suspected Coronary Artery Disease: Results of 1,764 Patients. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2001; 37: 451-457. Pubmed: 11216962. DOI: 10.1016/S0735-1097(00)01119-0
  18. Mitchell JD, et al. Impact of Statins on Cardiovascular Outcomes Following Coronary Artery Calcium Scoring. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2018;72:3233-3242. Pubmed: 30409567. DOI: 10.1016/j.jacc.2018.09.051
  19. Mehra S, Movahed H, Movahed A. Coronary Artery Calcium Scoring. Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine. 2011; 12(2) :e94-e103. Pubmed: 21796088. DOI: 10.3909/ricm0566
  20. Johnson, Jenna; Bernstein, Lenny. Trump's first official physical exam could provide new clues about his health. Washington Post. January 12, 2018.   Available on the web at: https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/trumps-first-official-physical-exam-could-provide-new-clues-about-his-health/2018/01/11/81924536-f640-11e7-beb6-c8d48830c54d_story.html
  21. Manchester, Julia. Exclusive: Bornstein claims Trump dictated the glowing health letter. (Published 27 May 2017. Downloaded on 2019-12-01.) Available on the web: https://thehill.com/homenews/administration/335424-trump-rode-golf-cart-while-g7-leaders-walked-through-siciliy
  22. Hedegaard, Erik. Donald Trump Lets His Hair Down. (Published 13 May 2011. Downloaded on 2019-12-24.) Available on the web: https://www.rollingstone.com/movies/movie-news/donald-trump-lets-his-hair-down-247616/
  23. Altman, Lawrence K. Donald Trump's Longtime Doctor Says President Takes Hair-Growth Drug. (Published 1 Feb. 2017. Downloaded on 2019-12-24.) Available on the web: https://www.nytimes.com/2017/02/01/us/politics/trump-prostate-drug-hair-harold-bornstein.html
  24. Agatston A, et al. Quantification of coronary calcium using ultrafast computed tomography. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 1990; 15: 827-832. Pubmed: 2407762. DOI: 10.1016/0735-1097(90)90282-t
  25. D'Amico AV, Roehrborn CG. Effect of 1 mg/day finasteride on concentrations of serum prostate-specific antigen in men with androgenic alopecia: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet Oncology. 2007; 8(1): 21-25. DOI: 10.1016/S1470-2045(06)70981-0

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